• Design of Light Aircraft

Richard D. Hiscocks • Soft cover • 280 pgs

This Book is of interest to aeroplane enthusiasts. The elements of design are described in a historical context with many examples to illustrate and explain the process.

Wing theory is examined together with the aerofoil selection process, scale effect, performance as required for a flight envelope aspects of stability and control, biplane theory, loads on components, structural stiffness requirements, flutter, fatigue life, and factors of safety.

All are viewed in the light of practical requirements and good design practice.

The Art that is required in design to balance the demands of performance, safety and cost is described. Often a highly precise analysis is not justified when the limitations of the theory and materials of construction are considered. In the design examples provided all of the arithmetic can be performed on a pocket calculator.

Readers who do not have the time or inclination to study official airworthiness standards and texts written for specialists in aerodynamics and structures will find this book a useful design guide. Extensive data is provided for those who do not have ready access to a technical library.


1 Loads, General
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Symmetrical Maneuvers
1.3 Load Factors
1.4 Dynamic Pressure
1.5 Airspeed
1.6 Flight Envelope
1.7 Ultimate and Limit Loads

2 Wing Section Properties
2.1 Coefficients, General
2.2 Lift Coefficient, CL
2.3 Lift Curve Slope. a=Cl/a
2.4 Zero Lift Angle aL=o
2.5 Drag Coefficient, CD
2.6 Pitching Moment Coefficient, CM
2.7 Wing Flap Effects
2.8 Boundary Layer and Scale Effects

3 The Wing in Three Dimensions
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Slope of the Lift Curve
3.3 Induced Drag
3.4 The Drag Polar
3.5 Parasite Drag

4 Performance Considerations
4.0 General
4.1 Aircraft Drag Estimate, - Example DOX
4.2 Selecting a Powerplant
4.3 Climb Performance
4.3.1 Performance at Sea Level
4.3.2 Climb at Altitude
4.3.3 Power vs Speed
4.3.4 Reduction Gear
4.4 Wing Characteristics, DOX
4.5 Weight and Balance

5 Manoeuvring Flight Loads
5.1 Symmetrical Manoeuvres
5.2 Balancing Loads
5.2.1 Principal external Loads
5.2.2 Angle of Attack
5.2.3 Thrust
5.2.4 Inertia Factor
5.2.5 Total Drag
5.2.6 Pitching Moment M
5.2.7 General Observations
5.3 Application to Aircraft DOX
5.3.1 Balance Calculations, Aircraft DOX
5.4 Balance Loads, n = 1
5.5 Balance Loads at the Envelope Boundaries
5.5.1 Loads at Boundaries of the Flight Envelope
5.5.2 Points D, E, C
5.6 High Lift Devices
5.7 Simplified Criteria

6 Wing Loads, Forces at Aero-Centre
6.1 Distribution of Forces, Symmetrical Loads
6.2 Wing Panel Loads
6.3 Inertia Relief
6.4 Normal and Chordwise Components
6.5 Observations
6.6 Unsymmetrical Loads, Wing Torsion
6.6.1 Centre Section Shear Loads
6.6.2 Wing Pitching Moment due to Ailerons
6.7 Simplified Design Requirements
6.7.1 Flight Envelope
6.7.2 Arbitrary Loads

7 Gust Loads
7.1 Sharp Edged Gust
7.2 Gradient Gusts
7.3 Gust Envelope
7.4 Flaps

8 Spanwise Distribution of Wing Loads
8.1 Spanwise Load Distribution
8.2 Wing Shear Load
8.3 Wing Bending Moment
8.4 Twisted Wing
8.5 Wing with Flap
8.6 Wing with Aileron
8.7 Wing with Continuous Twist

9 Tail Design
9.0 Longitudinal Stability
9.1 Horizontal Tail Loads
9.1.1 Balance Load Pb
9.1.2 Manoeuvring Loads Pm
9.1.3 Combined Loads, Horizontal Tail
9.1.4 Gust Loads Pg
9.1.5 Tailplane Setting
9.1.6 Spanwise Distribution of Tail Load
9.2 Directional Stability
9.2.1 Vertical Tail Balancing Loads
9.2.2 Manoeuvring Loads
9.2.3 Arbitrary Loads, Vertical Tail
9.2.4 Gust Loads, Vertical Tail
9.3 Combined Loads, Horizontal and Vertical Tail Surfac
9.4 Outboard Fins
9.5 V Tails

10 Pressures on Wing Sections
10.1 Approximate Method
10.1.1 Comparison with Tests, NACA 4415 and 64 Series Sections
10.1.2 Application to DOX
10.1.3 Reversed Flow
10.2 Flap Loads
10.3 Aileron Loads
I 10.4 Load Distribution on Horizontal Tail Surfaces
10.4.1 Thin Aerofoil Theory Applied to Control Surfaces
10.4.2 Application to DOX
10.5 Tailpiane Torsion Loads
10.6 Comparison with Official Design Standards
10.7 Aerodynamic and Mass Balance
10.8 Chordwise Load Distribution on Vertical Tail
10.9 Flap and Elevator Interaction

11 Landing Gear Loads
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Energy Requirements
11.3 Tire Energy Capacity
11.4 Shock-Strut Energy
11.5 Design Examples
11.5.1 Low Wing Cantilever Monoplane, Fig.11.5.1(a)
11.5.2 High Wing Light Aircraft, Fig. 11.5.2(a)
11.5.3 High Wing Monoplane with Cantilever Main Gear, Fig. 11.5.3(a)v
11.5.4 Cantilever Spring Main Gear
11.6 Limit and Ultimate Factors
11.6.1 Drop Tests
11.7 Basic Landing Conditions
11.7.1 Level Landing
11.7.2 Tail-down Landing
11.7.3 One-wheel Landing
11.7.4 Level Landing with Yaw
11.7.5 Braked Roll condition
11.7.6 Tail Wheels, Supplementary Conditions
11.7.7 Nose Wheels, Supplementary Conditions
11.8 Emergency Landings
11.9 Remarks

12 Biplane Lift
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Load distribution, Classic Biplane
12.3 Manoeuvring and Gust Loads
12.3.1 Lift Coefficients
12.3.2 Lift Curve Slope
12.3.3 Drag
12.3.4 Pitching Moment
12.4 Example, Biplane Balance
12.4.1 Data required for balance calculations
12.5 Wing Flaps
12.6 Remarks

13 Engine Mount and Control System
13.1 Engine Mount
13.1.1 Load Conditions on the Flight Envelope
13.1.2 Gyroscopic Forces
13.1.3 Tension Coefficients
13.1.4 DOX Engine Mount
13.2 Control System
13.2.1 Aerodynamic Forces
13.2.2 Pilot Forces
13.2.3 Secondary Control Systems
13.2.4 Control System Stiffness
13.2.5 Ground Gusts

14 Flutter and Stiffness
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Wing Bending Torsion Mode
14.3 Wing Tip Torsional Stiffness
14.4 Wing Bending - Aileron Mode
14.4.1 Aileron Mass Balance
14.4.2 Aileron Torsional Stiffness
14.4.3 Aileron Control Circuit Stiffness
14.5 Fuselage Stiffness
14.6 Tail Structural Stiffness
14.6.1 Torsion, Horizontal Stabilizer
14.6.2 Torsion. Rudder, Elevator
14.7 Centre of Gravity, Mass Balance, Rudder, Elevator
14.8 Control Tabs
14.9 Control Divergence

15 Fatigue
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Gust Load Spectrum
15.3 Manoeuvring Load Spectrum
15.4 Life Prediction
15.4.1 Compact D Nose Example
15.4.2 Stabilized Thin Skin Cell Example
15.5 Discussion and Conclusions

Symbols and Abbreviations
Specification, Aircraft CF DOX

About the Author:

Richard D. Hiscocks has received many awards for contributions to aircraft design and teaching.

The de Havilland Beaver, for which he had major design responsibilities, is recognized as Canada's premier bush plane. It first flew in 1947, and nearly one thousand of these aircraft are still in service.

A leading participant in the design of all de Havilland Canada aircraft from the Chipmunk to the Dash 7, Dr. Hiscocks has also been a consultant to government agencies and many aircraft firms.

As adjunct professor, he conducted design courses at the University of Toronto and the University of British Columbia.

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Design of Light Aircraft

  • Product Code: 946
  • Availability: In Stock
  • $75.00

Tags: Design, Light Aircraft, Hiscocks